2. Stars produce their energy by fusion, which is different than fission because fission splits apart atoms. Fusion brings atoms together, forming different elements.
3. There are three types of galaxies- Irregular, Spiral and Elliptical. Our solar system is located in the arm of a spiral galaxy.
4. A planetary nebula comes from the nova of a red giant star. A solar nebula is a cloud of dust and debris that forms a solar system. A stellar nebula is a cloud of dust and debris that forms only a star.
5. Stellar Nebula--> Protostar-->Average, Main Sequence Star-->Red Giant --> Nova --> Planetary Nebula and White Dwarf --> Black dwarf
6. Stellar Nebula --> Protostar--> Massive, Main Sequence Star--> Red Supergiant --> Supernova --> (1) Black Hole
--> (2) Neutron Star
7.The doppler effect is the apparent shift in light- blue as it is approaching and red as it is recedes. This happens because the wavelengths compress and shorten their frequency when they are approaching something. Shorter wavelengths (higher frequencies) make something look bluish. When a wavelengths elongates and their frequency increases, they look reddish. NNNNNNNNNNNurrrrrrrrrrrr
8. Evidence for the big bang theory: 1. Mathematically, the universe should be expanding or contracting, 2. Cloud distance was increasing (reddish tint) 3. Doppler effect of galaxies all around us- we were expanding.
9. Gravity keeps everything from flying off into outer space and keeps things in orbit.
10. The universe is, scientifically, 13.7 billion years old. The earth is, scientifically, 4.5-4.6 billion years old.
11. To be classified as a planet 1. An object must orbit the sun, 2. That orbit must be circular, 3. The orbit must clear that of it's neighbor.
12. Every photograph of our galaxy is fake because we're still in it and have never been outside of it to turn around and photograph it.
13. A protoplanet has a hot, molten core and is larger than planetesimals. Planetesimals are a larger, conglomerate of asteroids.
14. A galaxy is a celestial soup of stars, protoplanets, asteroids, planetesimals, dwarf planets, solar systems, nebulas, dust and debris that can have millions to billions of stars.
15. We can see the part known as the Visible Light Spectrum.
16. The waves with the greatest frequency are gamma rays.
17. The waves with the longest wavelength (lowest frequency) are radio waves.
18. There are roughly 150-200 billion stars in our galaxy, but we can only see around 2 thousand of them because of our pathway around the sun. It's like a panoramic camera taking a picture in a circle.
19. A theory, in general usage, is a guess. A theory, in science, is an explanation based on evidence. A theory in science can change only when the evidence changes and until then, is taken as fact by the scientific community.
20. Proof is undisputable. Evidence is simply a fact of what we observe. Proof can't change. Evidence can- based on our observation.
21. A star increases in size after burning hydrogen because as hydrogen fuses into helium, helium's volume increases, increasing the volume of the star. Hydrogen = salad, Helium = Twinkies
22. The asteroid belt is located between mars and jupiter.